In normal individuals food is broken down to glucose in the presence of insulin the glucose present in blood is utilized by body cells with the aid of insulin secreted by pancreas for getting energy to maintain optimal health. Diabetes is a condition which is signified by a higher concentration of glucose levels in the blood because person cannot utilize glucose due to deficiency of insulin secretion by the pancreas of the body.
Types of Diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes: The Cells of Pancreas responsible for secretion of Insulin do not function properly or are completely damaged. This type of diabetes is found in children and young persons, hence it is also known as Juvenile Diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes: In this type of Diabetes the pancreas cells do make some insulin but the body prevents the insulin to perform it’s function. This type is usually found in elderly obese patientsonly but now a days it is encountered in children and young persons also.
Diabetes is found in the pregnant women also, if it is not treated properly the mother and child can also develop many health disorders.
Diabetes is characterized by:
1. Feeling of exhaustion all the times.
2. Sensation of great thirst (Polydipsia)
3. frequent urination.
4. Blurring of the eyesight.
5. Felling of hunger all the times.
6. Sudden fall of body weight.
7. Non-healing of wounds.
8. Numbness of hands and feet.
Causes of Diabetes:
Definite causes of Diabetes are not known, possibly body lacks a gene which can provide protection at the time of onset of disease. Diabetic patients are usually obese with a sedentary life style, hiving higher levels of triglycerides in thir blood or suffering from hypertension and also having a diabetic hereditary family history
Diabetes a Warning Signal:
The health of the Diabetic patient is on the thresh hold of rapid worsening of the status of his health if not properly taken care of initially and maintaining of care through out his life.
Diabetes affects both rich and poor alike and for a considerable peiod remains undiagnosed, because for minor symptoms the patients donot take medical advise and the disease progresses to a stage when the symptoms become uncomfortable for the patient to bear. Because of this trend of accessing delayed medical advice, India has become the Diabetes World capital with more than 33 million people suffering from type 2 Diabetes representing about 20 % of World Diabetic Population. With the present progression rate it is estimated that by the year 2030, about 80 million Indian population shall be diabetic. A similar progression trend has been noticed in other Asian Countries also.
Diabetes a life long association:
Diabetes patients are destined to live their rest of their life with Diabetes with lot of care to keep the disease under control by regularly taking the advised medication and adjusting their food and lifestyle habits. Patients have to remain regularly under medical care
Diabetes & Future Onset of Serious Complications:
Diabetic patients carry a high risk of exposure to other serious complications, like hypertension, coronary heart disease, Degenerative vascular system and tissues of lower limbs. When there is continued high blood sugar level, the blood sugar generates certain substances, which are potentially harmful to the body cells, which damage delicate organs like heart, Blood Vessels, Kidneys, Nerves, Teeth and lower limbs. If with the passage of time treatment is not initiated serious complications start setting in.
Diabetic Disease Education to patients:
The Diabetic patients need to be educated about their disease and the necessary care and precautions they have to religiously follow in the true sense particularly about the lower limbs. The Diabetic patients are carrying a higher risk of degenerative vascular system of lower limbs resulting in Nerves and Tissues damage progression of which requires amputation of Toe, Foot depending upon the severity of the affected part. Thus they have to lead a life of dependency.
Diabetes & Heart Disease:
Diabetic Patients are 2 to 4 times more prone to suffer from heart attack as compared to normal persons. In the obstructructions developed in the arteries of heart and in the entire circulatory system there is slowing of blood supply resulting in pain in the Chest,difficulty in breathing, swelling of Heels, thickening of the blood vessels all these quickly lead to a Heart Attack
Protection of Heart & Blood Vessels:
The quick onset of serious complications can be reduced by:
1. Bringing down high blood glucose levels to normal.
2. Reducing intake of foods containing high quantities of Saturated fats, Trans Fats and High
3. Reduction in intake of Common Salt.
4. Keeping blood Pressure and blood Lipids in control.
5. No smoking and no consumption of tobacco.
6. Moderate Exercise.
The filtration membrane gets thickened. The Protein metabolites excretion is reduced, which damages the kidney. The incidence of Renal failure due to Diabetes is in 45 % of the Renal failure cases. Special kidney function tests are performed to ascertain early involvement of kidney complications because no specific symptoms are witnessed in early stages of kidney complications.
Complications of Eyes:
Diabetes can damage the smaller capillaries of the eye. Diabetes can precipitate Glaucoma because of increase of internal pressure in the eye ball. There can be eyesight complication or even complete blindness due to the damage to retinal blood vessels and detachment of Retina.
Amputations of affected foot:
The complication of the foot can be loss of touch sensation, Pain or swelling of foot, Delayed or non-healing of foot, Change in the colour of skin to redness. As a precaution the foot should be protected from any cut, scratch or from any other injury. Wounds because of faulty blood circulation in the feet the Nerves and Tissues get damaged resulting ultimately gangrene development resulting into amputation of toe or foot in diabetic foot damage progression.
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Source by Jagmohan Chadha